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  1. I think it is definitely culture dependent. I didn't get my oldest daughter's ears pierced (and she still doesn't have them pierced as a teenager). But when we were living in the country where my second daughter was born, we were visiting some friends who were surprised she didn't have her ears pierced and they wanted to get it done for her as a kind of baby gift. They were very close to us and it was a special gesture. We went with them to the pharmacy to do it. In an interesting twist of fate, they ended up immigrating to our home country and we see them quite often. It is a special bond between them and my teen that they were the ones who took her to get her ears pierced.
  2. I got mine pierced when I was 11 and if I go without earrings for about six months, they partially close enough that it is painful to re-insert them. My youngest got hers pierced as a baby. A few days later, she lost one in the night and the hole had closed by morning to the point where we couldn't even see it! We intended to get it re-pierced a few days later, but then she lost her other earring in the night. I just assumed baby skin was so soft and cells just regenerated so quickly that they closed over faster than with older kids or adults. We decided to wait until she asked for them herself and she got them re-pierced when she was 8. For the first few years, she had to keep earrings in them all the time or her ears would partially grow over. But now she is 15, she can go several days (not weeks) without wearing earrings. She has a second piercing she got a few years ago, and she can go a few days without wearing earrings. She is cautious, so she doesn't go longer than that.
  3. My daughter had issues with a few sounds while we were living in a non-English speaking country in kind of an isolated area. A visiting American speech pathologist worked with her to help her say her /k/ and /g/ sounds by having her put a spoon on the tip of her tongue, and then she pointed me to some online resources for /sh/, /ch/ and /dj/. At this point I think my daughter was 6 1/2. I helped her see that if she started saying the /s/ sound and then slowly moved her tongue back, she could get a /sh/. So we worked a bit each day on some picture cards with the /sh/ sound and of course at first it was really exaggerated. But when she got used to the tongue placement, she moved into the more accurate sound. After that, we worked on putting a slight /t/ before the /sh/ to make the /ch/, again working with picture cards (it sounds like you could skip to that stage with your son). Finally, we added voice and made the /dj/ sound. Talking about her tongue being involved in the sounds made sense to her because of her previous experience with the spoon on her tongue for the /k/ sound. This was totally diy because of our situation, so obviously help from a professional would be a lot better! Her /r/ took another year to master, but that was within the range of developmentally normal and we didn't do any intervention. Fortunately, she was able to pronounce a French /r/ so she could make herself understood! Best wishes as you seek the best solution for your son!
  4. I was researching this for someone else, so have this link handy on qualifying for German universities. It is the link that most universities will point you to. Enter your country and situation. AP courses tend to be required in the prospective field of study (either science or humanities). But some universities also offer a foundation year for those who do not meet the academic qualifications (i.e. those with a basic American high school diploma). https://www2.daad.de/deutschland/nach-deutschland/voraussetzungen/en/57293-database-on-admission-requirements/?id=418&ebene=5 My youngest dd has been researching studying in Belgium, so I know a bit about that too. She will have her British A-levels, so that is mostly what we have been inquiring about, but here is a sample university page mentioning US high school diploma and minimum 4 APs. So if she wants to study in Dutch or French, Belgium could be an option. https://www.ugent.be/prospect/en/administration/application/requirement/bachelor.htm I will also mention that if she is decides to stay closer to home for her undergrad and go overseas for graduate school, then Germany has free Masters degrees taught in English. I know of two American students from two different families who did their Masters in Germany and loved it. Good luck!
  5. We used Wolsey Hall for IGCSE science, and my friend has used them for IGCSE and A-levels for her three children. The classes are self-paced, rather than live, though. Hope you're able to find what you're looking for!
  6. I recommend this book: The Bilingual Edge. It is not a scholarly book, but the authors are both scholars and parents and they refer to their own research and the research of others. Their motto is "It's never too early (or too late) to learn another language." My experience with my kids is that we lived in a country where the best way to get kids exposed to the national language was by putting them in school. Our youngest thrived at local school and did well with the language. Our oldest was very sensitive and did not do well with the strict environment and was struggling with handwriting and reading in English as well. So we pulled her out of school and homeschooled her, but we had a young woman come three days a week to play with her and read stories, etc. She hated those sessions, even though the young woman was very kind and patient. We were out of the country for three years, when we focused on French instead, and now we are back in this country. She is taking language lessons four hours a week, with a communicative approach, and working with her dad an hour a week on the written language. She is speeding through it and enjoying it. In her situation, learning the language as a young teen has been way more effective and a more positive experience than learning it as a preschooler and young child. But my youngest, on the other hand, did really well as a young child, and is doing really well as a teen. Good luck, with whatever you choose!
  7. My daughter did French immersion in Canada before we moved overseas for her grade 8 year. She is now studying at an international school in English, and the French class for her year is using Coquelicot CM2 Fraincais by Hachette (ISBN 978-2-7531-0871-4), which is the equivalent of about grade 5 for a native speaker. It has a nice layout, and includes texts, vocabulary, grammar, spelling, conjugation. It is the right amount of challenge for her, and is not babyish, as it might be if she went down another level. There is also a workbook to go with the student book. I'm not sure how easy it would be to get ahold of the teacher materials, or if your own French is at a level where you could do without the answers. Before we left Canada, we had explored with a few Francophone families having my daughter babysit their kids (speaking French), while I helped the mom with English. They were from Francophone Africa, so the adults were interested in learning English. That's how I met them, because I was volunteering at the library's English conversation group. We never got around to it before we left, but something like that could be a neat possibility for your daughter. I'm also interested in hearing if anyone else has ideas, both for this daughter, and for my other daughter whom I'm homeschooling, but who was not in Immersion. She needs more of the second language type materials. Good luck!
  8. This has been a really helpful thread for me. I appreciate all the ideas. I was just thinking about the skill of summarizing. I've been teaching paraphrasing to a group of science students and I think we finally have that down-pat, but does anyone have some good ideas about how to teach summarizing?
  9. When I think of Brave writer, I think of the Brave writer lifestyle: poetry teatime, freewriting, copywork, movie discussions, nature journaling, read alouds, word games, Shakespeare... Some of these are done weekly (Friday Freewrites, Tuesday Teatime), and others are worked into the rhythm of the month or year. So for math, you could think of what makes a "math lifestyle" and work those elements into your weekly, monthly, or yearly rhythms. Some math lifestyle ideas that might be engaging for a 10 year old are cooking/baking, construction, cartography, navigation (make your own sextant, or buy a cheap sextant), board games, coding, money management or start a small business, counting systems around the world and/or throughout history, geometric art (tessellation, animation, string art)...
  10. For an ancient history setting, I'm looking into this for next year, but haven't read it. I'm not sure how well the narration by multiple authors works. A Day of Fire This one is about Pompeii, but there are also other books by the same authors about Boudica, Troy, Alexander the Great etc. This website has a list of YA books from 2017. I haven't read any of them, though some look like I myself would like them, and some that my dd would like. But I don't know your son's taste, so it might be good just to browse through it. You can also search for any year.
  11. The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert is an engaging read that goes into some of the history of previous extinction and includes interviews and field experiences with current scientists. Lab Girl by Hope Jahren is the autobiography of a scientist with a focus on botany. If your dc hasn't already read The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind by William Kamkwamba, then this might be a good time. Environmental tie-in is alternative energy sources and impact of environmental phenomena such as drought. I personally read the young reader's edition because it skipped some of the detail, but you may want the detail! Hot, Flat and Crowded by Thomas Friedman is a really good integration of science and social science. But it is ten years old by now, and a lot has happened since then. The Botany of Desire is a fascinating movie about how plants "use" humans to get the best conditions to propagate. It's based on a book by the same name by Michael Pollan. I haven't read the book. Speaking of Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma is another look at how humans are integrated with their environment and how that makes choices complicated. Are you also looking for fiction?
  12. Sorry, I don't know too much about the homeschooling policies for universities in BC or Alberta. I do know of many homeschooled students who have gone to Trinity Western University in BC and also that Quest University is very welcoming to homeschoolers. The University of Victoria also has a fairly well-laid-out policy on their website and I have heard of one family whose kids went there. If your students know that they are for sure going to study in Alberta, not BC, then they should follow a path that meets the requirements for Alberta universities, not BC ones. In BC, as well as Ontario, it is your grade 12 grades and courses that are important, not all the high school courses. So you will likely see programs that specify requirements like "grade 12 math, grade 12 chemistry, grade 12 English." In Ontario, at least, you can either do the official grade 12 courses at a school or online or you can do SAT subject tests or AP courses for those requirements. You can check with specific universities in Alberta and see whether it is the same there. Good luck!
  13. My understanding is that for American students, they will be evaluated on a U.S. system grading scale, namely the 4.0 system. You just report whatever system is used including the grading scale (the college transcript probably has the grading scale in a sort of legend somewhere on it). This is from the Guelph site: "Senior level courses should include specific subjects that are required for admission to your degree program of choice. Particular attention is paid to performance in program prerequisites. Your school profile with grading scale should be included with documents, and all sent through Parchment/Naviance whenever possible." And further down on the page: "Out-of-Country Canadians in U.S. schools are evaluated for admission and scholarships using both the U.S. GPA and the SAT or ACT, not grade percentages alone." This is what the York U page says for high school graduates from the United States: Grade 12 graduation with a minimum overall average of "B" on Grade 11 and Grade 12 academic courses. "High School Diploma; SAT score of 1170 (SAT submission code: 0894) or ACT score of 24 (ACT submission code: 5250). SATs/ACTs are considered in combination with academic record and are only required of students studying in the United States, Puerto Rico and Guam. Transfer credit granted for final scores of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) exams, depending on the program (maximum 30 credits)." Each program has specific courses that you would have to have. Presumably the "B" would be the cut-off. And they would interpret "B" however the school you are coming from interprets "B." For a transfer student, requirements depend on the program. For example, this is what it says for cognitive science for a community college transfer: "Completion of a diploma program or at least two full semesters or one year of full-time academic study at an accredited college. Overall average of 3.0 or better on a 4-point scale (or equivalent)."
  14. I've never talked to them in person, so I don't know what vibes they give off in terms of homeschooling, but the info on their website looks pretty similar in terms of requirements as the other universities in Ontario. Basically homeschool up to grade 11 and then either complete 6 4U credits, including the prerequisites for the specific program, or do SAT/ACT including SAT subject tests for the subjects that are prerequisites for the specific program. This link also includes requirements for homeschooled students from the United States, which does seem more stringent since they say the diploma has to be "accredited" whatever that means. Anyway, you're right, Dm's dd would not necessarily fall into that category. She would more likely fit into the "international transfer student" category. This link has info for American students who have done some community college, as well as those who have a diploma from a community collage. Sounds like a much easier process! Guelph also has open online courses that are a guaranteed pathway to admission that are another option for homeschool students (they can do them while in high school, I don't think there is a minimum age). They are pricey though, and my own dd has balked at the idea of her first university experience being online, so I've not looked deeply into them. Good luck to your dd, dmmetler! I love hearing about her exploits!
  15. I read an article a while back about how different frogs respond differently to changes in the environment and the authors were from Guelph University. Not sure exactly what departments though. Guelph has a well-known zoology program, and also majors like biodiversity and wildlife conservation. Guelph is near Toronto, so it might be fun to check out. In terms of cognitive science, U of Toronto has a program. I applied and got accepted to it way back when, but I ended up choosing a different field and different school. I remember really being attracted to the interdisciplinary nature of the program, but I also felt there was a strong emphasis on AI, which wasn't that interesting to me at that time. And I agree with Dicentra that the great thing about Canadian universities is that you get to jump into your major right away, without having to take lots of general courses. Good luck!
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