Jump to content

Menu

wuhan - coronavirus


Recommended Posts

39 minutes ago, lewelma said:

NZ completely closed its borders yesterday to all people travelling out of India, including NZ citizens.  For the past week, there has been a huge spike in cases on the first day of quarantine for people travelling out of India. So instead of 4 new cases per day on average, we spiked to 17 cases per day and all of those from India. This is our military run quarantine where a positive day 1 test moves you to a different and more strict facility (which I'm guessing was filling up). We require a negative covid test within 3 days of travelling, so it looks like people were getting covid while travelling to the airport in India.  😞

Must be bad.  That’s a lot of cases coming in.  Each time here we’ve had a bunch of cases from one country it’s been followed by a big spike in that country.  Are you guys ok?  I saw something about a community transmission case but didn’t have time to follow up on it.

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
  • Replies 18.3k
  • Created
  • Last Reply

Top Posters In This Topic

  • Ausmumof3

    3777

  • Pen

    2548

  • Arcadia

    1337

  • Corraleno

    337

Top Posters In This Topic

Popular Posts

DS got home 3 hours ago!  ❤️❤️

Update-  my youngest is not only short of breath, coughing, dizzy, nausaues, and with headache-  she is also confused.  I called our doctor and talked with him and she is going to be going to the ER.

Thought I'd post a pic of my dd, getting ready to spend another day in a coronavirus triage tent!  

2 hours ago, Ausmumof3 said:

Must be bad.  That’s a lot of cases coming in.  Each time here we’ve had a bunch of cases from one country it’s been followed by a big spike in that country.  Are you guys ok?  I saw something about a community transmission case but didn’t have time to follow up on it.

We are good. They are really good at contact tracing now. The community case from 3 days ago was a Quarantine worker who had missed multiple vaccine opportunities due to 'personal reasons.' Luckily, he lives alone and carpools with another quarantine worker who was vaccinated. So, this community case is not likely to go anywhere.  But in other news, we are in a travel bubble with you starting on the 18th! 

  • Like 3
  • Thanks 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
3 minutes ago, lewelma said:

We are good. They are really good at contact tracing now. The community case from 3 days ago was a Quarantine worker who had missed multiple vaccine opportunities due to 'personal reasons.' Luckily, he lives alone and carpools with another quarantine worker who was vaccinated. So, this community case is not likely to go anywhere.  But in other news, we are in a travel bubble with you starting on the 18th! 

That will be great! 

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
On 4/7/2021 at 11:05 PM, TCB said:

I must start by apologizing because I don’t think this is necessarily  too relevant to this thread but wasn’t sure where it fits.

I’ve been thinking about what has made this year so hard, and one thing is the fact that it has been the most difficult and upsetting work year in my 35+ years as a nurse, but I have hardly discussed it with many local friends and acquaintances because they are so busy maintaining the position that it is no big deal and completely overblown for political reasons. They just literally never ask about it or say anything about it. It’s surreal.

I'm sorry.  That must be so hard.  I wish I could have been posting special chocolate through your door, as I have been doing for my nurse friend here.

  • Like 6
  • Thanks 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
3 hours ago, Laura Corin said:

I'm sorry.  That must be so hard.  I wish I could have been posting special chocolate through your door, as I have been doing for my nurse friend here.

I’m so happy you do that for your friend! That must really help her! My sister in law made me a lasagna one week and that lifted my spirits!

  • Like 6
Link to post
Share on other sites
10 hours ago, Corraleno said:

Remember when the vaccines were first becoming available and there was a debate among public health experts whether it would be more effective to prioritize the elderly, in order to directly reduce deaths, or prioritize workers and younger people who were more likely to spread it, in the hope that reducing transmission would indirectly reduce deaths in the elderly?

There was an interesting article in the Washington Post today discussing how choice #2 has played out in Italy and comparing their results to France. Both countries prioritized HCWs and folks in nursing homes, but France continued to prioritize the elderly while Italy moved on to vaccinating a lot of younger workers (albeit with significant regional variations and no real central plan), with the result that only 2% of Italians in their 70s have been vaxxed yet.

It would now appear that option #1 was the better choice: while France and Italy are experiencing very similar spikes in case numbers, Italy's death rate is significantly higher.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/italy-vaccines-death-toll/2021/04/08/2d621f12-971a-11eb-8f0a-3384cf4fb399_story.html

 

🤔 But I think the UK used a strictly age-based strategy, as did Israel.

Edited by Penelope
Link to post
Share on other sites

https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/medical/jandj-covid-vaccine-reviewed-by-eu-regulator-after-blood-clots/ar-BB1ftkrb
 

Quote

The European Union’s drug regulator has started a review to assess blood clots in people who received Johnson & Johnson’s Covid-19 vaccine. Four serious cases of unusual clots accompanied by low blood platelets, one of which was fatal, have emerged after immunization with the J&J shot, the European Medicines Agency said Friday.

 

  • Thanks 1
  • Sad 4
Link to post
Share on other sites
48 minutes ago, Penelope said:

🤔 But I think the UK used a strictly age-based strategy, as did Israel.

I wonder if you misread the post? France, like Israel and the UK, chose to prioritize the elderly, and they have lower death rates than Italy, which prioritized younger workers. The article is affirming that the age-based strategy was the most effective in reducing deaths.

  • Like 2
  • Thanks 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
1 hour ago, Corraleno said:

I wonder if you misread the post? France, like Israel and the UK, chose to prioritize the elderly, and they have lower death rates than Italy, which prioritized younger workers. The article is affirming that the age-based strategy was the most effective in reducing deaths.

Oh gosh, I did! 😂 
That’s even better. Now for the rest of the world. 

Link to post
Share on other sites
1 hour ago, kand said:

I wonder how far off Novavax is. It seems like the world would benefit from some other non-adenovirus vaccines coming online ASAP, to sidestep the clotting issue.  It still appears these clots are only happening around 1 in 1,000,000, but I expect it will lead to increased hesitancy because nobody wants to be that 1 (though obviously, the risk from contracting Covid itself is much higher than 1 in 1,000,000). 

I wonder if it could have anything to do with the spike protein used in all the vaccines, a suggestion I’ve seen floated out there. There have been some cases of thrombocytopenia with the mRNA vaccines, which I rarely hear anything about, but I have not seen anything written about clotting with them, so far.

The cases after Johnson and Johnson are very few so far, but now that clinicians will be looking for them, we may see more reported. 
 

All the vaccines we have here and in Europe use the spike protein, but all except AZ use a more stabilized form of it, the pre-fusion spike. But if Janssen turns out to have the same issues, then it shouldn’t be due to that. Has anyone read anything about why an adenovirus vector would be more likely to cause a problem? Has this happened before in adeno trials?

Edited by Penelope
Link to post
Share on other sites

Two papers in the NEJM looking at some of the post-AZ cases.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2104882
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2104840

I don’t know if this was shared in past threads since it’s from February, but since I mentioned it, here is something about cases of platelet problems after mRNA vaccines have occurred. I am sure someone has looked at this, too. Interesting that all of these conditions are platelet-related, and that other vaccines are known to rarely cause thrombocytopenia. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajh.26132

Link to post
Share on other sites
1 minute ago, kand said:

Do you know if this is more common in animals than people? I’ve mostly been aware of it in relation to dogs.

I actually don't know...I've know of a few dogs, personally, and one human (teen daughter of a coworker at a vet clinic, actually). She also had Juvenile RA so I'm sure it was partly the case of when you have one AI disease you are prone to more. 

Link to post
Share on other sites
4 minutes ago, Penelope said:

I don’t know if this was shared in past threads since it’s from February, but since I mentioned it, here is something about cases of platelet problems after mRNA vaccines have occurred. I am sure someone has looked at this, too. Interesting that all of these conditions are platelet-related, and that other vaccines are known to rarely cause thrombocytopenia. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajh.26132

Is the rate of occurrence more than with other vaccines though? We are giving millions of doses of these Covid vaccines so if there is a rare side effect you would expect to see some cases. Could it be that the rate is actually similar to other vaccines, but they are not given in such numbers.

Link to post
Share on other sites
32 minutes ago, TCB said:

Is the rate of occurrence more than with other vaccines though? We are giving millions of doses of these Covid vaccines so if there is a rare side effect you would expect to see some cases. Could it be that the rate is actually similar to other vaccines, but they are not given in such numbers.

That article actually says that the rate they are seeing in vaccinated patients [eta: this is with mRNA vaccines] is basically the same as would be expected in the population as a whole:

"Thus, the incidence of an immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia post SARS‐CoV‐2 vaccination appears either less than or roughly comparable to what would be seen if the cases were coincidental following vaccination, perhaps enhanced somewhat by heightened surveillance of symptomatic patients."

Edited by Corraleno
  • Like 1
  • Thanks 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
12 minutes ago, ktgrok said:

Vaccines in general can trigger an autoimmune thrombocytopenia, so that part is not new, or unexpected. (so can illness)

 

10 minutes ago, kand said:

Do you know if this is more common in animals than people? I’ve mostly been aware of it in relation to dogs.

Yes. I don’t know about animals vs. people.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12026-014-8597-x

Vaccine-associated autoimmunity may stem not only from the antigen-mediated responses but also from other constituents of the vaccine, such as yeast proteins, adjuvants, and preservatives diluents. The most likely is through virally induced molecular mimicry. 

 

I have seen chatter that if all of the vaccines are coming up with platelet issues, molecular mimicry might be the mechanism. The AZ vaccine without the stabilized spike, or the chimp vector, or other adeno vector, might not have anything to do with it. But that is speculation. And if it were true that more than one has rare issues, what could we really do about it? Covid causes clotting, too. Redesign future vaccines? No idea. 
 

One of the NEJM articles postulates that there might be some “free DNA” in the vaccine that is causing the problem. 

7 minutes ago, TCB said:

Is the rate of occurrence more than with other vaccines though? We are giving millions of doses of these Covid vaccines so if there is a rare side effect you would expect to see some cases. Could it be that the rate is actually similar to other vaccines, but they are not given in such numbers.

That is for the experts to analyze and tell us. I am sure they must be looking at everything. ITP isn’t so uncommon as what is happening  with those cases with AZ, from my understanding. 

Link to post
Share on other sites

Just as follow-up, I found some more info on Pfizer (Referred to by trade name Comirnaty in documents) and Moderna re the thrombocytopenia. The European Medicines Agency became aware of a safety signal for thrombocytopenia for these vaccines along with the concerns about Astra Zeneca. 
They initiated a continuing investigation in mid-March.

As of a letter dated 3/24, it says the investigation is ongoing. Subsequently this may have been resolved, but if it has I am having trouble finding it. Seems clear the signal wasn’t as strong or unusual as it was for AZ.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/news/meeting-highlights-pharmacovigilance-risk-assessment-committee-prac-8-11-march-2021

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/other/reply-open-letter-concerning-vaccines-covid-19_en.pdf

 

 

 

Link to post
Share on other sites
7 minutes ago, Penelope said:

Just as follow-up, I found some more info on Pfizer (Referred to by trade name Comirnaty in documents) and Moderna re the thrombocytopenia. The European Medicines Agency became aware of a safety signal for thrombocytopenia for these vaccines along with the concerns about Astra Zeneca. 
They initiated a continuing investigation in mid-March.

As of a letter dated 3/24, it says the investigation is ongoing. Subsequently this may have been resolved, but if it has I am having trouble finding it. Seems clear the signal wasn’t as strong or unusual as it was for AZ.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/news/meeting-highlights-pharmacovigilance-risk-assessment-committee-prac-8-11-march-2021

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/other/reply-open-letter-concerning-vaccines-covid-19_en.pdf

 

I have to say, I'm kind of glad we aren't being quite as "careful" with vaccines in the US as they are being in Europe. 

This kind of reminds me of how everyone's decided that running trials on pregnant women is unethical. OK, so then we just don't HAVE trials on pregnant women! But people still prescribe things like Zofran off-label for pregnant women. 

So instead of having a trial for 200 pregnant women at risk, we have millions of people in an unofficial trial! And we don't have great controls or comparisons either. 

I fail to see how this is a win, lol. And I fail to see how Europe's current situation is a win, either. 

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
4 minutes ago, Ausmumof3 said:

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2778528#.YHG59rszEEU.twitter
 

a little bit of data on Long Covid.  I haven’t had a chance to read the full thing so I’m mostly putting it here to be able to find later.

Oh, yikes. 15% with moderate or worse symptoms 8 months later 😞 . They are counting loss of smell/taste as possible such symptoms, for what that's worth. 

This is the kind of strong signal you don't need to run statistics on. How depressing. 

Edited by Not_a_Number
  • Sad 2
Link to post
Share on other sites
4 minutes ago, Not_a_Number said:

Oh, yikes. 15% with moderate or worse symptoms 8 months later 😞 . They are counting loss of smell/taste as possible such symptoms, for what that's worth. 

This is the kind of strong signal you don't need to run statistics on. How depressing. 

Yeah not so good.  Although healthcare workers probably had exposure to higher viral load and more ongoing exposures I guess so maybe it will be different for the average.  It’s a bit early and my brains still waking up.  

Link to post
Share on other sites
Just now, Ausmumof3 said:

Yeah not so good.  Although healthcare workers probably had exposure to higher viral load and more ongoing exposures I guess so maybe it will be different for the average.  It’s a bit early and my brains still waking up.  

I dunno, when they ran antibody tests around here, they didn't have higher percent with antibodies, if I remember correctly. The PPE really helps. 

  • Like 3
Link to post
Share on other sites
2 hours ago, Ausmumof3 said:

more at the level my brain can cope with this morning ... kinda cute and visual way of understanding what vaccines will do.

Whoa — is it true that AZ is only 2% effective against asymptomatic infection??? 😮

ETA: I'm not finding this anywhere, I wonder where she got that from??

 

Edited by Corraleno
Link to post
Share on other sites
4 minutes ago, Corraleno said:

Whoa — is it true that AZ is only 2% effective against asymptomatic infection??? 😮

ETA: I'm not finding this anywhere, I wonder where she got that from??

 

Eek somehow I missed that!  I thought it was quite positive for reducing transmission.  It was back in Feb.

Link to post
Share on other sites

So India is having a terrible time, hitting younger people, and more deadly. So hard.

This article was exciting, a polypeptide that could provide protection against every coronovirus. Makes you realise the incredible work some scientists are doing:

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210411/New-polypeptide-could-provide-universal-protection-against-coronaviruses.aspx

  • Like 2
  • Sad 2
Link to post
Share on other sites

There has been a second case in Australia of the Astra Zeneca blood clots making the current rate 1 in 350,000. A woman in her 40s who is in stable condition.  
 

Australia has also had its first Covid death in some time with an eighty year old returned traveller in Queensland dying in hospital.

  • Like 1
  • Sad 4
Link to post
Share on other sites

pretty interesting Twitter thread on the variant - worth reading from the top.  Short version - Covid is evolving faster than influenza typically does but maybe that will settle down in a year or two - we don’t know yet.

Edited by Ausmumof3
Link to post
Share on other sites

A woman has just died in Australia after being vaccinated - not quite sure if it's the same woman as above who developed blood clots? 

I really wonder what will end up happening with vaccination in Australia. The trouble is that the risk of getting covid is so low here - it must be lower than one in a million - that it makes the risk of dying from blood clots seem very high. I don't know anyone who is keen on getting the vaccine now, which isn't an issue at the moment as so few people are getting vaccinated, but may be huge down the track - how will they open the borders again if only half the population gets vaccinated?

  • Like 3
  • Sad 5
Link to post
Share on other sites
19 hours ago, bookbard said:

A woman has just died in Australia after being vaccinated - not quite sure if it's the same woman as above who developed blood clots? 

I really wonder what will end up happening with vaccination in Australia. The trouble is that the risk of getting covid is so low here - it must be lower than one in a million - that it makes the risk of dying from blood clots seem very high. I don't know anyone who is keen on getting the vaccine now, which isn't an issue at the moment as so few people are getting vaccinated, but may be huge down the track - how will they open the borders again if only half the population gets vaccinated?

That must be really hard! I guess the risks of Covid will increase once you start opening borders and then maybe it will feel like a better decision- and hopefully they will be able to then get everyone vaccinated, who wants to, in time.

Link to post
Share on other sites
On 4/16/2021 at 6:53 AM, bookbard said:

A woman has just died in Australia after being vaccinated - not quite sure if it's the same woman as above who developed blood clots? 

I really wonder what will end up happening with vaccination in Australia. The trouble is that the risk of getting covid is so low here - it must be lower than one in a million - that it makes the risk of dying from blood clots seem very high. I don't know anyone who is keen on getting the vaccine now, which isn't an issue at the moment as so few people are getting vaccinated, but may be huge down the track - how will they open the borders again if only half the population gets vaccinated?

From the way the press conferences are going I kind of feel like we’re being threatened with - yes the borders are going to open and there’s going to be 1000 cases a day so you better take what vaccine you can.  That was how it came across to me.  I mean realistically we can’t stay closed forever I guess but I feel like the gov could have done and still could be doing more to secure a wider range of vaccines - they were always going for Astra because it’s the cheapest option.

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites

So it looks to me like the case curve for the US has been trending gradually up for about a month now but the death curve is still trending down slightly.  This seems like a good sign that vaccinating the vulnerable is really working?  Would that be a fair interpretation?

  • Like 4
Link to post
Share on other sites

https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/blood-type-not-covid-19-risk-factor-us-inhaled-asthma-drug-may-keep-mild-illness-2021-04-16/?taid=607a13745a08ec000131f5af&utm_campaign=trueAnthem:+Trending+Content&utm_medium=trueAnthem&utm_source=twitter
 

Only a small study but seems like a good result for budesonide for preventing people from getting worse.

“Within a week of developing symptoms, 73 patients were randomly assigned to receive inhaled budesonide twice a day, and another 73 were assigned to receive only usual care. On average, patients used budesonide for 7 days. Ultimately, 15% of patients receiving usual care needed an urgent-care visit or hospitalization, compared to only 3% of those treated with budesonide. Patients who got budesonide also had fewer days with fever, fewer days of taking medicines to prevent fever, and recovered on average one day faster. "To our knowledge," the researchers said, this is the first trial of inhaled corticosteroids in early COVID-19 illness, and it "potentially provides the first easily accessible effective intervention" for patients with mild symptoms. They said larger trials to confirm their findings are urgently needed”

  • Like 3
Link to post
Share on other sites
18 minutes ago, Ausmumof3 said:

So it looks to me like the case curve for the US has been trending gradually up for about a month now but the death curve is still trending down slightly.  This seems like a good sign that vaccinating the vulnerable is really working?  Would that be a fair interpretation?

Yes, and that seems to match what HCWs are seeing, with the numbers of hospitalized older patients declining and younger patients increasing. E.g. in Michigan, the percentage of hospitalized covid patients over 70 dropped from 50% in the fall to 25% now, while those aged 30-49 more than doubled from 11% to 24%.

  • Like 5
Link to post
Share on other sites

some interesting links etc here comparing J&J to AZ and seems like there may be less of the clotting issue - would be good if true.  A bit technical for me at this time of night though.

  • Like 2
Link to post
Share on other sites

What's happening in India right now is just terrifying. The "curve" is basically a vertical line and the rate of spread is accelerating rapidly — daily cases jumped from 150K to 260K in a single week. New Delhi alone had more than 25,000 new cases in one day, with a positivity rate of 30%. There are virtually no ICU beds left in a city of 20 million people. 😥

Screen Shot 2021-04-18 at 11.08.48 AM.png

  • Sad 23
Link to post
Share on other sites

https://apnews.com/article/joe-biden-global-trade-india-coronavirus-pandemic-coronavirus-vaccine-50f18d8be1711d11744db710cfbb4c92
 

Quote

The chief executive of Serum Institute of India, the world’s largest maker of vaccines and a critical supplier of the U.N.-backed COVAX facility, asked President Joe Biden on Twitter to lift the U.S. embargo on exporting raw materials needed to make the jabs. 

Vaccine makers and experts in India have been concerned that the use of the Defense Production Act by the U.S. to boost it own vaccine production was resulting in exports of critical raw materials being stopped. This was hobbling vaccine production in other parts of the world.

Stéphane Bancel, chief executive officer for Moderna, said Tuesday in an online event that export embargoes were also preventing American vaccine makers from exporting shots globally and resulting in shortages.

 

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
4 hours ago, Corraleno said:

What's happening in India right now is just terrifying. The "curve" is basically a vertical line and the rate of spread is accelerating rapidly — daily cases jumped from 150K to 260K in a single week. New Delhi alone had more than 25,000 new cases in one day, with a positivity rate of 30%. There are virtually no ICU beds left in a city of 20 million people. 😥

Screen Shot 2021-04-18 at 11.08.48 AM.png

News here said that hospital beds in New Delhi  are doubling up, 2 per bed. 😳

And people are still gathering in very tightly packed groups. 😲

  • Sad 9
Link to post
Share on other sites
4 hours ago, Penelope said:

I think there's a bit of a double standard there — India is asking the US not to block the export of vaccines and raw materials that the US currently needs, while they themselves have blocked the export of 100 million doses of AZ vaccine that they were contracted to supply to COVAX this month, which screws the 70 countries that rely on COVAX. India has also blocked the export of Remdesivir and the raw materials for Remdesivir. So they're asking the US not to do to them exactly what they are currently doing to even poorer countries.

  • Like 3
Link to post
Share on other sites
On 4/16/2021 at 6:15 PM, Ausmumof3 said:

https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/blood-type-not-covid-19-risk-factor-us-inhaled-asthma-drug-may-keep-mild-illness-2021-04-16/?taid=607a13745a08ec000131f5af&utm_campaign=trueAnthem:+Trending+Content&utm_medium=trueAnthem&utm_source=twitter
 

Only a small study but seems like a good result for budesonide for preventing people from getting worse.

“Within a week of developing symptoms, 73 patients were randomly assigned to receive inhaled budesonide twice a day, and another 73 were assigned to receive only usual care. On average, patients used budesonide for 7 days. Ultimately, 15% of patients receiving usual care needed an urgent-care visit or hospitalization, compared to only 3% of those treated with budesonide. Patients who got budesonide also had fewer days with fever, fewer days of taking medicines to prevent fever, and recovered on average one day faster. "To our knowledge," the researchers said, this is the first trial of inhaled corticosteroids in early COVID-19 illness, and it "potentially provides the first easily accessible effective intervention" for patients with mild symptoms. They said larger trials to confirm their findings are urgently needed”

Inhaled nitric oxide also looks like it may also be promising: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/view/clinical-trial-confirms-nasal-spray-efficacy-in-treating-reducing-transmission-of-covid-19

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
1 hour ago, iamonlyone said:


I have been interested in sound frequencies on health, and some may relate to generating NO: 

 
by E Weitzberg · 2002 · Cited by 142 — The paranasal sinuses are major producers of nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that oscillating airflow produced by humming would enhance sinus ventilation and thereby increase nasal NO levels. Ten healthy subjects took part in the study.
 
 
 
by GA Eby · 2006 · Cited by 27 — Nitric oxide can inhibit human rhinovirus-induced epithelial expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and can ...
 
  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
On 4/7/2021 at 3:05 PM, TCB said:

I must start by apologizing because I don’t think this is necessarily  too relevant to this thread but wasn’t sure where it fits.

I’ve been thinking about what has made this year so hard, and one thing is the fact that it has been the most difficult and upsetting work year in my 35+ years as a nurse, but I have hardly discussed it with many local friends and acquaintances because they are so busy maintaining the position that it is no big deal and completely overblown for political reasons. They just literally never ask about it or say anything about it. It’s surreal.

I'm so sorry. This is exactly what moral injury is.

Edited by calbear
  • Like 2
Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


×
×
  • Create New...