
Statistics is:
Collecting, organizing, summarizing and analyzing data.

Statistics provides a measure of...
Confidence

The process of statistics... (4 things)
Identify, collect, organize, conclude

Numerical summary of population...
Parameter

Numerical summary of sample...
Statistic

Descriptive statistics describes data through... (3 things)
Numbers, graphs, tables

Name, label, category. Not ranked
Nominal

Name, label, category. Is ranked
Ordinal

Name, label, category. Difference of rank is meaningful
Interval

Name, label, category. Difference of rank is meaningful and zero means the absence of quantity.
Ratio

Explanatory variable affects the value of a
Response Variable

Measures response variable without changing the explanatory variables.
Observational Study

Observational studies allow researchers to claim _______ not ________
association, causation

Not separating two explanatory variables
Confounding.

A variable that affects the response variable but is not considered
Lurking Variable

A researcher assigns the individuals in a study to a certain _group____, intentionally ___changes__ the value of the explanatory variable, and then records the value of the __response___variable for each group.
Designed Experiment

The data are collected by looking back in time or looking at existing records.
Retrospective

The data are collected over time.
Prospective

Observational studies that collect information about individuals at a specific ___point_____ in time, or over a very ___short___ period of time
Cross sectional (Prospective)

These studies are retrospective. In casecontrol studies, individuals that have certain characteristics are matched with those that do not.
Case Control (Retrospective)

observed over a period of time. Over this time period, characteristics about the individuals are recorded.
Cohort (Prospective)

process of using ___chance________ to select individuals from a population to be included in the sample.
Random sampling

equally likely ___chance____
Simple Random Sample

obtained by __separating________ the population into nonoverlapping groups called strata and then obtaining ____a simple random sample_________ from each stratum.
Stratified Sample

obtained by selecting every kth individual from the population. The first individual selected corresponds to a random number between 1 and k.
Systematic Sample

Systematic sample find k
N/n, round down to integer.

obtained by selecting all individuals within a randomly selected collection or group of individuals. One or more groups is chosen at random. All individuals in chosen group are sampled.
Cluster Sample

the technique used to obtain the individuals to be in the sample tends to ______Favor__ one part of the population _over___ another.
Sampling Bias

Convenience sample, voluntary response sample and undercoverage are _____ bias
sampling

exists when individuals selected to be in the sample who do not respond to the survey have different opinions from those who do
Nonresponse bias

exists when the answers on a survey do not reflect the true feeling of the respondent.
Response bias

Design in which each experimental unit is randomly assigned to a treatment
Completely Random Design

design in which the experimental units are paired up.
Matched Pairs Design

Design is used when the experimental units are divided into homogeneous groups
Randomized block design

